A parametric study on the interaction of the support boundary conditions and bridge girders was performed. The parameters studied included the skewness of the bridge and the effect of the bearing stiffness on the bridge system. A finite element model of a bridge superstructure containing Florida bulb tee 78 girders was created using ANSYS software. effects of varying superstructure plan geometry, number of cells, skew angle, type of loading, and depth. Basic Concepts The obtuse corner reactions for any symmetrical loading condition will exceed acute corner reactions when a simple span, skewed box-girder superstructure on paral lel abutments is supported at its corners. Figure 1 shows. in the figures is for a 2-span, ft long bridge model with 60º skew angle. The deflection shown in the first figure has a scale factor of Figure 4 – Undeformed Shape of a 2-Span Model with 60 ° Skew Angle Figure 5 – Deformed Shape of a 2-Span Model with 60 ° Skew Angle The analysis to investigate the effect . The bridge parameters considered in the analysis included skew angle, length of the bridge span, beam spacing, the ratio of beam spacing to span (aspect ratio), and the ratio of the girder’s stiffness to slab stiffness. The effects of diaphragms on moments from truck and lane loading on continuous slab and girder bridges were studied. The.

Skew angle has significant effect on live load distribution factor. The ratio of distribution factor at any. skew angle to the distribution factor at zero skew shows the effect of skew (Barr et al., ). For a bridge with skew, the shear at the obtuse corner has been found to . In this paper, simple span NEXT beam bridges are considered. Tonly he restraints are obtain the maximum loading effects on the exterior beam. The load case is then moved In order to calculate the SCFs for LLDFs for shear, the unskewed NEXT beam bridge (i.e., skew angle=o) is 0used as a benchmark. For example, for a bridge with four. Chapter 10 - Bridge Hydraulics Publication Edition 10 - 1 CHAPTER BRIDGE HYDRAULICS. INTRODUCTION TO BRIDGES. A. General - Bridges. Bridges serve a variety of highway purposes including the elimination of conflicts with traffic and other modes of transportation, such as rail, marine, air and pedestrian. Bridges enable. A span 24 m of simply supported right bridge deck with I-section prestressed concrete girders is taken as the case study to obtain the values of the bending moment's distribution for the two types of skewness (types 1 and 2) and the results of skew types are compared against the moments of the right deck span of the bridge.

As can be seen, a total of 32 right bridges are explored. In order to determine the skew angle effects on the live load distribution, additional four different skewed bridges (i.e., skew angle = 10°, 20°, 30° and 40°) are analyzed for each right bridge, leading to a total of bridges being investigated in this paper. Example - Modified loading for standard AASHTO loads Determine the AASHTO truck and lane loads for H and HS loadings. Solution H Loading The GVW of an H truck load is 10 tons, or 20, pounds. From Figure , the GVW is distributed 20 percent to the front axle and 80 per cent to the rear axle. shelf angle- see SEAT ANGLE. shim-a thin plate inserted between two elements to fix their relative position and to transmit bearing stress. shoe-a pedestal-shaped member beneath the superstructure bearing that transmits and distributes loads to the substructure bearing area. shop-a factory or workshop. shore-a strut or prop placed against or beneath a structure to restrain movement. The classical smeared cracking model is widely used in reinforced concrete analysis. Falconer [] defined the equilibrium equations of a plane element by considering a compression field of concrete on the plasticity approach, Nielsen [] established the design equations for the orthogonal reinforcement of a concrete panel subjected to membrane forces.